Blackjack Probability Table

Blackjack, unlike other gambling games is not considered a game of chance, it is one that you can win if you start applying some knowledge. Unlike many other games where the result depends on player luck only, this game provides probabilities depending on the player decisions. Therefore, in order to win you have to know what your probabilities are now and how and when to increase them.

  1. Blackjack Probability To Win
  2. Poker Probability Table
  3. Blackjack Table Bets

Before we take a look at player and dealer blackjack odds, we should consider all the parameters that affect the odds in the game.

Blackjack probabilities are calculated due to different parameters, including the dealer up card. The table on the left depicts how likely it is that dealer will go bust with certain up cards and what the player odds are in this very situation.

House Edge Calculator
The easiest way for you to calculate the odds in blackjack is by using our free House Edge Calculator. This tool will help you to count player odds and the probabilities of dealer going bust on various dealer's up cards.
  1. The probability of a blackjack with six decks is (24/312). (96/311). 2 = 0.0474. 100 = 4.74% Converting Probability into Odds Odds are different than probability in that they show us the ratio between the number of desired outcomes occurring and the number of ways in which the desired outcome will not occur.
  2. Probability of obtaining a blackjack from the first two cards is P = 32/663 = 4.82654% in the case of a 1-deck game and P = 64/1339= 4.77968% in the case of a 2-deck game. Similarly, we can calculate the following probabilities.

Blackjack Rules Variations

Blackjack variations were created to entertain players and provide them with a chance to win more money on side bets. Each rule variation affects the house edge, some rules making a big, others making a minor difference. Most common rule variations can be found at our House Edge Calculator in the «Rules» window. Now, let's take a closer look at the rules and see how they affect the odds in the game.

NOTE: The rules chosen in the table below are most favorable for the player.

Number of decks

The first thing a player should consider when choosing a table is the number of decks used in the game. The more decks there are - the less odds the player has. (See the table - Probabilities – Number of decks)

Dealer hits or stands on soft 17

The main rules of the game are usually written on the table felt and it may say either dealer hits or stands on soft 17. If according to the rules dealer hits soft 17, the game gives the house a 0.2% extra edge.

Rules for doubling

This rule is sometimes called the 'Reno' rule, which restricts doubling only to certain hand totals. Double 9 - 11 affects the house edge increasing it by 0.09% (8 decks game) and 0.15% (1 deck game). Double 10-11 increases the house edge by 0.17% (8 decks game) and 0.26% (1 deck game).

Doubling after Split

If the casino allows a player to double after he splits a pair, the player will get a further edge of around 0.12%.



Most casinos allow players to split again after he/she splits a pair and is dealt another card of the same rank. However, if the casino does not, this means the odds favor the house. As the best hands for splitting are a pair of Aces and 8s, there may be a special rule for Splitting Aces. If the casino allows the player to re-split Aces, the player gets a 0.03% extra edge. Moreover, in most cases if the player splits Aces, the casino will deal only one card per hand and that's it. Allowing players to hit on a hand of Split Aces gives the player an edge of 0.13%. We do not consider this rule in our calculator due to the fact it is almost never used, especially online.

Good for player
  • 1 deck of cards (house edge 0.17%)
  • Doubling allowed on any cards
  • Doubling allowed after Split and after Hit (player edge 0.12%)
  • Early surrender is preferable
  • Dealer stands on soft 17 (player edge 0.2%)
  • Resplitting any cards allowed (player edge 0.03%)
Blackjack math and probabilities

Extra Rules Affecting Blackjack Odds

European No-Hole-Card Rule

Some blackjack variations are played with a hole card that is dealt to the dealer only after all the players have played their hands. This rule affects player strategy when playing against dealer up 10 or an Ace. In a typical hole-card game the player would know whether the dealer has a Blackjack or not before he makes any decisions. In this game, however, the player is risking a lot more if he decides to double or split. This rule adds 0.11% to the house advantage. However, there may be some casinos that allow the player to push on all the additional bets (doubling down and splitting pairs) if the dealer happens to have Blackjack.

Another Payouts on Blackjack

The classic payout on player Blackjack is 3 to 2. However, some casinos change the payout to increase the house edge. The payout on blackjack thus may vary from 1:1 to 6:5. As a Blackjack hand frequency is approximately 4.8% (see the table Two Card Hand Frequency), the payout of 1:1 will increase house edge by 2.3% and the payout of 6:5 - by 1.4%. The first rule (1:1) is only rarely found , while the second (6:5) can be found at some tables with a single deck blackjack game. The payout on Blackjack is generally written on a table felt.

Best tip
for odds seekers

The easiest way to choose the game with the highest odds is to play blackjack with no extra special rules. Do not forget where your basic odds are hidden - chance to Split, Double Down and get a 3 to 2 payout on Natural.

Dealer wins Ties

Another disadvantage for the player is when the rules of the game say that dealer wins all ties. This rule is almost never used in the classic games, though it can be found in some blackjack variations.


The Insurance bet is a casino trick that gives the house a huge edge. The main factor why many players take this bet lies in the fact it costs only half of the original one. However, when the player takes Insurance every time he plays the game, the house edge may raise up to 7%. Added to all the other rules the casino sets on the game and you will see why probabilities are worth learning if you want to quit winners.

Side Bets

All blackjack games that offer side bets seem to be the biggest attraction for blackjack lovers. However, if you consider blackjack odds on these bets, you will notice that no matter how big the jackpot is (as in progressive blackjack rules) or how great the payout is for the pair (as in perfect pairs rules), the odds still favor the house and you are not likely to win.

Blackjack Probabilities charts

Number of decksHouse Advantage %

The quantity of decks increases the house advantage with each extra deck added to the game. Look for games with the smallest number of decks. However, some games offering a chance to play with 1 deck may only still provide low player odds due to low payouts on Blackjack and other rules. Be sure to check them before you play.

Hand value% frequency
No Bust26.5

The table on the left describes how often the following hands can appear. The hands are the first two-cards dealt to the player. The frequency stands for the average number of times dealt per deck of cards. As you can see, the most frequent hands dealt are the 'Decision hands' that demand knowledge of blackjack strategy.

Hand value% of busting
11 or less0

In this table you can see the probability of going bust on any hand if the player decides to Hit. This means that with 0% you can never go bust when hitting a hand of 11 or less. As you can see, the table is for hard hand totals as you will 100% bust if you Hit on a hand of hard 21.

CardHouse edge %
(when cards removed)

You probably already know that in blackjack small cards in the deck favor the dealer while big ones favor the player. In this table you can see that removing 2s from the deck adds a 0.40% of advantage to the player, while if 10's are taken out - the odds are 0.51% for the house.

Dealer Face Up CardDealer Bust %Player Odds %
(Using Basic Strategy)

Blackjack probabilities are calculated due to different parameters, including the dealer up card. The table on the left depicts how likely it is that dealer will go bust with certain up cards and what the player odds are in this very situation. For example, the highest player odds are when the dealer shows a 6, as he is most likely to go bust with this hand. The lowest player odds are when the dealer's up card is a 10 or an Ace.

House Edge Calculator
You can count the players and casino odds any time you play with the help of our House Edge Calculator. The tool helps to find the probabilities for any game rules and the results can be calculated for all parameters.

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By Hon. Ion Saliu, Founder of Blackjack Justice

First capture by the WayBack Machine ( May 21, 2020.

    Your Honor, I hereby accuse the Order of Casino Sycophants of damaging public deception. They make-believe that the glamorous game of blackjack has a frivolous house edge. Said game with its odds is so attractive to the masses that we can treat it equally to tossing a golden coin.
    Our complaint shall prove that the real conditions of the game are far worse than the fake-news promoted, indeed imposed, by the Order of Casinos and their Sycophants.

Let me just say that benign ignorance has been at the heart of the matter. Nobody really knew what the real odds (probability) of blackjack were. Analysts lacked the fundamental elements required by the fundamental formula of probability: favorable cases (over) total possible cases.

Calculating the odds is the sine qua non condition of calculating the house advantage or the edge the casinos have in the game of blackjack. No casino offers a game where they don't have an edge or advantage. It's their bloodline — a legal requirement, as a matter of fact.

The first attempt at calculating the house advantage in blackjack is granted to John Scarne, a non-mathematical man who had the ambition of being the greatest gambling writer in history. Personally, I grant such honor to Blaise Pascal who analyzed a backgammon game. The historical event is known as de Méré Case and it founded a branch of mathematics hence known as theory of probability.

John Scarne rightly figured out that the casino gains an edge in blackjack because of the simultaneous bust — the dealer and the player bust at the same time. However, when the player busts, he/she loses the bet immediately as he/she always plays first. It is possible that the dealer can bust his/her hand (in the same round), but it is too late for the player; they already lost their bet.

John Scarne calculated the odds of dealer's bust to be 28%. If the player played by the same rules as the dealer, the simultaneous bust would be: 0.28 * 0.28 = 7.8%. But since the player is allowed to stand on 16 or less under certain circumstances, our 'mafia' man calculated that the final odds would be around 5.9%. That's the 'physical probability' of casino winning at blackjack. Free valkyrie slots.

The casino offers bonuses to the player, however. They pay 3 to 2 for a natural 21 (Ace+Ten in the first 2 hands of the player). They also allow double-down and splitting pairs. At the end of the day, the bj house advantage goes all the way down to that glamorous figure of 0.5%.

Right now, we focus our attention on the raw figure of 5.9%. Based on that figure (and so-called simulations), everybody agreed that the results of blackjack were:

  • 48% winning hands for the dealer
  • 44% winning hands for the player
  • 8% hands end up as pushes (ties).
  • 44/92 = 47.8% winning probability for the player

In order to calculate the probability precisely, we must generate all the elements (blackjack hands) in lexicographical order. Nobody even knows how many hands are possible, as their size varies widely: From two cards to 10 cards (for one deck)! When two or more decks are employed, the blackjack hands can go from two cards to 11 cards.

Of course, there is a lot of blackjack software out there! But all that software belongs to the simulation category. That is, the blackjack hands are dealt randomly. Based on the well-known-by-now Ion Saliu's Paradox, random generation does not generate all possible combinations, as some elements repeat. So, we can never calculate the probability precisely based on random generation. If there are 334,490,044 total possible complete hands in blackjack, only 63% will be unique and 37% will be repeats — if we randomly generate 334,490,044 hands.

I had started years ago a blackjack project to generate all possible hands. It was very difficult. I found the project in the year of grace 2009 and also the code to generate sets from a list (last update: 2014). In this case, the list is a 52-line text file with the values of the blackjack cards, from the four 2's to the 16 Tens, to the four Aces. That's a stringent mathematical requirement. The deck of cards must be also ordered lexicographically, if we want to correctly generate all qualified sets in lexicographical order.

I generated blackjack hands as both combinations and arrangements. Then, I opened the output files (text format) and checked as many hands as possible. Yes, computing things are so much better today than just a decade ago. The generating process is significantly faster.

I wrote a special Web page dedicated to the topic of calculating precisely mathematically the bust-odds at blackjack following the Dealer's rules. There are lots of details, plus screenshots of the probability programs:

  • Blackjack Dealer Bust: Software to Calculate Probability, Odds, House Edge, Advantage HA.

Keep this new figure in mind: The odds for a blackjack Dealer's bust are at least 33%. The bust probability is calculated by dividing the number of Dealer's busted hands to the total possible blackjack actions.Blackjack actions is a parameter that counts everything: Busted hands, pat hands (17 to 21), blackjack hands, and draws or hits to the first 2-card hands (incomplete hands). The software does NOT print the incomplete bj hands.

How can we apply the new programming to determine the bust odds for the blackjack Player? After heated debates in forums in 2014, I simply modified my software. The hit-stand limits can be set by the user. Initially, it was fixed — the ubiquitous hit all 16 and under, stand on all 17 or greater.

The software user can set the hit-limit to any value. The choices are, obviously, from 12 to 16. I tried, for example, the hit limit to 11 — that is, hit anything 11 or under, stand on anything 12 or higher. Evidently, there is no bust in such situations. That's another proof that my programming is 100% correct.

I believe that setting the hit limit to 14 or 13 reflects pretty closely the bust odds for the Player. That is, stand on 15 or greater (as arrangements):

Or, stand on 14 or greater (as arrangements):

  • Now, the house edge goes between something like .3355 * .2248 = 8.3% and something like .3355 * .1978 = 6.6%. It averages out to 7.5%. It is a far cry from the intentionally false house advantage (HA) of .5%, or even .17% (promoted by several crooks)!
  • The overwhelming majority of blackjack players lose their bankrolls quickly, because this is NOT a 50-50 game or so much close to that margin.
  • And always be mindful that blackjack is strongly sequential: The Dealer always plays the last hand. Otherwise, the casinos would go bankrupt.

Recalculating the raw figures for winning/losing hands, my theory shows:

  • 50% winning hands for the dealer
  • 41% winning hands for the player
  • 9% hands end up as pushes (ties).
  • 41/91 = 45% winning probability for the player

Axiomatic ones, who's right and who's wrong? If you have been a frequent visitor of my website, you already know how many hits I've been taken from casino executives, agents, moles, other gambling authors, system developers, vendors, gurus, bishops, saints, etc. Granted, the attacks against yours truly were far more intense earlier (beginning 1998 and ending early 2000's). They realized I wouldn't get intimidated, so they have given up, by and large.

In this year of grace 2019, I came up with a new idea: Let's set at the same table mathematics and reality. The first attacks aginst me went along the lines: 'Mathematics, specifically formulae, have no place in gambling — as it is totally random.' And I've always counterattacked: 'But what is not random, crooked idiots? The entire Universe is ruled by Almighty Randomness, as voided of consciousness as it might be!'

Standard deviation is the watchdog of randomness. Let's see what figures of blackjack odds are right by employing the binomial standard deviation. Then, compare the results to casino gambling reality.

It is time now to apply the most important bonuses the casinos grant to the blackjack players:

  • natural 21 pays 3-to-2
  • double down pays 2-to-1 (if successful)
  • splitting pairs pays 2-to-1 (if successful).

We ignore the current tendency in the gambling industry to pay a natural bj 6-to-5.

The double down success is closely around 60%. The same success rate of 60% occurs in the pair splitting situations.

Next, it is very important to know the probability/odds of appearance for the 3 bonuses above.

  • natural 21 occurs in 4.8% of cases, but only when dealing 2 cards to oneself at the beginning of a 52-card deck. We average the odds to 4% for multiple players (4 players and a bj dealer is an average situation in my book). Refresh your memory by reading this popular resource:
    • Calculate Blackjack Probability, Odds: Natural 21, Insurance, Double-Down Hands, Pairs.
  • double down hands have an appearance rate of 8%, as first calculated by yours truly. Please read this very popular resource:
    • Calculate Probability of Double-Down Hands.
  • splitting pairs hands have an appearance rate of 3%, as first calculated by yours truly. Please read this very popular resource:
    • Calculate Probability of Split Pair Hands.

Axiomatics, we run my probability software widely known as SuperFormula.exe, the function D: Standard Deviation. We run the function twice: First, for the traditional black jack parameters (5.9% odds, 48% winning probability for the player); secondly, for what I consider closer-to-reality blackjack parameters.

We take a common case of playing 100 hands. That is, the blackjack player must cash in the amount needed to play 100 hands at the minimum bet. For example, in the rare case of $10 minimum bet, the player must chip in at least $1000. I can't stress enough the stupidity of players who start with $100.. they lose quickly.. then leave the table.. go to another table and cash in $100.. etc. Vae victis! Poor victims!

Blackjack Probability To Win

WHOA! ON AVERAGE, THE PLAYER WINS 52 BET UNITS AFTER PLAYING 100 HANDS!!! That's a flagrant impossibility in 99.7% to all blackjack players, in all casino situations. You and I will never, ever, see a basic strategy player be ahead $52 after playing 100 hands, at $10 table minimum!

We come back to earth by going with my fundamental blackjack parameter: 45% winning odds for the player.

You, the player, do lose. Still, this is the happiest case calculated by my blackjack-odds software: One deck of cards. Today's PCs are still incapable (at least in the case of this programmer) to calculate for two or more decks of cards. But I experimented with calculable amounts of cards. The rule is very clear: The more cards, the worst the odds get for the player. In other words, the more decks, the worse conditions for the blackjack hopeful! And even worse with multiple players at the table (the common reality)!

Haven't you witnessed this in any casino, at any blackjack table? The overwhelmingly vast majority of players lose their bankroll quickly. They leave the venues almost on their knees. 'How the hell is this possible,' they ask themselves (sometimes loudly). 'Blackjack is supposed to be a 50-50 game.. damn it!'

It ain't such a golden coin game, kokodrilo (royalty-name for big-time gambler)! I'm afraid you were misguided big-time.. you still are. You are mostly cheated by the card-counting crooks, the bedfellows of the casinos in that gambling bedlam! You go by their insane odds and you are guaranteed to win as a matter of fact. Play 100 hands and win $52 at $10 minimum bet. Well, then, ask for a $100 table minimum and make a $500 net. This is the average, but it will be confirmed in any reasonable long run. Not the billions of hands long-run prophesized by the crooks!

Poker Probability Table

Blackjack: Software, Content, Resources, Systems, Basic Strategy, Card Counting

See above: The comprehensive directory of the pages and materials on the subject of blackjack, baccarat, software, systems, and basic strategy.

Blackjack Table Bets

  • Blackjack: Basic Strategy, Card Counting, Charts, Tables, Probability, Odds, Software.
  • The Best Blackjack Basic Strategy: Free Cards, Charts.
    All three color-coded charts in one file, in the best decision-making sequence: Split Pairs, to Double Down, to Hit or Stand.
  • Gambling Mathematics in Blackjack Proves Deception of Card-Counting Systems.
  • Probability Software to Analyze Blackjack Streaks: Wins (W+), Losses (L-), Busts, Pushes.
  • Best Card Counting Blackjack Systems, Casino Marketing, Gambling Deception, Fraud.
  • The Best Blackjack Strategy, System Tested with the Best Blackjack Software.
  • Blackjack Insurance Bet Favorable to All Players.
  • DownloadSoftware: Casino Gambling, Roulette, Blackjack, Baccarat, Craps.
  • Specific software for blackjack, BJ
    ~ BJAQK and Blackjack: Probability and statistical analyses of thousands of blackjack hands from the perspective of a strict blackjack old basic strategy (OBS) player.

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